By 'associations' is generally meant un-incorporated groups. Sometimes they are social, political or environmental groups - but more broadly they are groups of people that have a common goal or interests. They sometimes have constitutions, but often not. Associations occasionally get involved in litigation, and it is there that things get sticky. Association law has legally located the collective 'standing' of associations in contract law, which is quite counter-intuitive.
Associations - Clubman's Veto
Associations - Contractual in Nature
Associations - Judicial Review Status
[last edited 30 Oct 2022]