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Estoppel, Res Judicata and Stare Decisis


'Estoppel' refers to a party being barred from asserting a claimed right because of them having elected, either directly or implicitly, a past position inconsistent with that now-claimed right. Such a 'position' may be taken or made by statement, action - or even inaction. For example, you may be 'estopped' from arguing interpretation A of a contract, when you have relied on the contrary position B for the last year.

In Ryan v. Moore (SCC, 2005) the Supreme Court of Canada lists the six recognized types of estoppel:
52 The jurisprudence discloses six types of estoppel: estoppel by representation of fact, proprietary estoppel, promissory estoppel, estoppel by convention, estoppel by deed and estoppel by negligence (see Bower, at pp. 3-9). ...
Res judicata and stare decisis are similar only they are more authoritative, since the accepted position is 'officially'-endorsed - ie. having resulted from a past legal ruling (res judicata) or from established legal principle (stare decisis). Stare decisis comes in at least two types - 'vertical' and 'horizontal'!.

What all of these doctrines share is that they operate to block arguing against something that is already established - either factually, legally - or both.


Estoppel - General

Estoppel - Estoppel And Public Authorities

Issue Estoppel

Estoppel - Issue Estoppel (+)
Estoppel - Issue Estoppel within Summary Judgment
Estoppel - Issue Estoppel and Criminal Law
Estoppel - Issue Estoppel - Final versus Interlocutory Orders
Estoppel - Issue Estoppel - Settlement
Estoppel - Issue Estoppel - Administrative

Cause of Action Estoppel

Estoppel - Cause of Action Estoppel

Promissory Estoppel

Estoppel - Promissory Estoppel (+)

Proprietary Estoppel

Estoppel - Proprietary Estoppel

Estoppel by Representation

Estoppel - Estoppel by Representation

Estoppel by Convention

Estoppel - Estoppel by Convention

Res Judicata

Res Judicata - General

Stare Decisis

Stare Decisis - General | Part 2
Stare Decisis - Obiter Dicta
Stare Decisis - Judicial Comity
Stare Decisis - Horizontal
Stare Decisis - 'Reasonable Hypotheticals' Charter Doctrine
Stare Decisis - International Authorities as Precedents
Stare Decisis - Charter
[see also Administrative Stare Decisis]

. see Ryan v. Moore, 2005 SCC 38 (CanLII), [2005] 2 SCR 53

[last edit 06 Jan 2023]


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Last modified: 21-02-24
By: admin